FAO mangrove cover
This indicator shows the trend in reported mangrove cover area for the years 1990-2015, as well as the average annual percent change of mangrove cover during 1990-2015, derived from the FAO Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015. The percentages of annual change of mangrove cover were calculated using mangrove cover in 1990 as a baseline.
By 2020, the rate of loss of all natural habitats, including forests, is at least halved and where feasible brought close to zero, and degradation and fragmentation is significantly reduced.
The annual change of mangrove cover ranges from -100% to 100%. Higher absolute values indicate faster change in mangrove cover, with values less than 0 indicating net mangrove forest loss and values greater than 0 indicating net mangrove forest gain. The areas covered by mangrove are presented as baseline in thousand hectares, with higher values indicating greater mangrove cover available to provide habitat.
This indicator is available globally at the country and CBD/WDPA-regional scales.
The area of mangrove cover is available for the years of 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015 as baselines.
The percent change of mangrove cover is available annually for the years 1990-2015.
The FAO mangrove cover indicator is derived from the forest extent values published in the FAO Global Forest Resources Assessments (FRA) 2015 updates. The FRA are conducted every 5 or 10 years. The percent of land area with forest, including the mangrove forest, is reported in 1990-2015 by each country, and further updated in the 2015 assessment. This is available as a dataset through the FAO FLUDE (The Forest Land Use Data Explorer), which provides compilations of forest land use and resource data that are mostly derived from the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015. The country-level forested area and land area were grouped to calculate the CBD/WDPA-regional forest cover indicator.
The FAO Global Forest Resources Assessments (FRA) are mainly based on Country Reports prepared by National Correspondents in the past, supplemented by remote sensing conducted by FAO together with national focal points and regional partners in the latest assessment in 2015. The forest was defined as “Land spanning more than 0.5 hectares with trees higher than 5 meters and a canopy cover of more than 10 percent, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ. It does not include land that is predominantly under agricultural or urban land use,” and the mangroves were defined as “Area of forest and other wooded land with mangrove vegetation”, including the planted mangroves defined as “Mangroves predominantly composed of trees established through planting.” (See FRA 2015 terms and definitions, 2012.)
The percentages of annual change in mangrove forest cover were calculated for the period 1990-2015, using the mangrove cover in 1990 as a baseline.
This indicator is not applicable to landlocked countries or those with no natural mangrove forests.
Although the terms and definitions, including the definition of “forest”, were standardized and documented in the designing and planning stage of the assessment, data standards, variables and methods inevitably vary somewhat over long periods. Also, the methods used by each country may vary slightly from the standard terms or definitions.
Ten countries (Saint Kitts and Nevis, Guatemala, China, Cuba, Australia, Brazil, Barbados, Nicaragua, Sudan, and Congo) lack data for 1990, four countries (Barbados, Nicaragua, Sudan and Congo) lack data for 2000, and one country (Congo) lacks data for 2015. When these countries are grouped with neighboring countries to calculate regional averages, the data from the nearest available year were used.
Source data are available on-line from FAO FLUDE (The Forest Land Use Data Explorer) as csv files.