This indicator reflects anthropogenic impacts on the environment in 2009 and its change from 1993 to 2009.
The score integrates eight types of human pressure:
- human population density
- human land use and infrastructure:
- built environments
- electric infrastructure
- pasture lands
- human access:
- navigable waterways
By 2020, at the latest, Governments, business and stakeholders at all levels have taken steps to achieve or have implemented plans for sustainable production and consumption and have kept the impacts of use of natural resources well within safe ecological limits.
The Human Footprint score ranges from 0-50, with higher values representing greater anthropogenic impacts to the natural ecosystem.
The annual change rate of human footprint ranges from -100-100%, with higher values representing faster rates if increase in anthropogenic impacts to the natural ecosystem. Negative values represent decreased anthropogenic impacts to natural ecosystems.
This indicator is available globally at the basin, country and regional (FAO ecological zones and Convention on Biological Diversity/World Database of Protected Areas regional divisions) scales.
This indicator is available for the year 2009 as a baseline.
To indicate trends, the average rate of annual change in the Human Footprint score is available for the period 1993-2009.
The source data, the Global Terrestrial Human Footprint maps, were published in journal Scientific Data, 2016. This indicator was developed by spatially summarizing the source data at basin, country and regional scales, as the averaged human footprint score at the pixel level (1 square kilometer) in 1993 and 2009. The average annual change rate was calcualted as an exponentional function for 1993 to 2009, unless the human footprint score was 0 in either or both of the years when we calculated the annual change rate as a linear function.
The Global Human Footprint is an evaluation of anthropogenic impacts (i.e., human pressures on the environment). The Global Terrestrial Human Footprint maps are available at 1-kilometer grid cells for 1993 and 2009. The indicator integrates eight global data layers including human population density, human land use and infrastructure (built environments, electric infrastructure, crop lands, pasture lands), and human access (roads, railroads, navigable waterways) from 1993-2009.
Learn more about the methods used to calculate the Global Human Footprint scores from the publication, Venter O et al., 2016.
NatureServe disaggregated the source data to multiple spatial scales to generate this indicator.
The human footprint scores are relative, not absolute.
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The source data for the Global terrestrial Human Footprint maps are available through the publication in Scientific Data:
Venter, O. et al. Global terrestrial Human Footprint maps for 1993 and 2009. Sci. Data 3:160067 doi: 10.1038/sdata.2016.67 (2016).